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Values of ε depend on the enrichment, with ε approaching unity (from above) for fully enriched fuel. 2. Fast neutrons may also escape from the reactor core. This is referred to as fast-neutron leakage. Such neutrons are lost from the life cycle and will not cause a fission reaction. The quantity Lf is defined as the ratio of the total number of fast neutrons escaping leakage to the total number produced from fast and thermal fission. Lf is often called the non-leakage probability and therefore the fraction that does leak out is given by (1 − Lf ).

Rossi and H. H. Staub, Ionization Chambers and Counters, New York: McGrawHill, 1949; and D. H. Wilkinson, Ionization Chambers and Counters, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950. These books are quite old but contain much detailed information. A new reference intended for physics students that discusses ionization chambers, proportional counters, multiwire chambers, and drift chambers is W. R. Leo, Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1994. , Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Neutron cameras consisting of arrays of collimated tubes between the plasma and a variety of detectors or spectrometers can provide information about the spatial distribution of the neutron source and the temperature of the ions (36). The different sightlines across the plasma cannot be very close since massive shielding is needed to prevent crosstalk between different observation channels. Thus their usefulness is of some value for physics studies where the information is not otherwise available, but is not likely to be useful for the burn control.

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