This choice of newly comissioned essays via foreign individuals bargains a consultant review of an important advancements in modern philosophical logic.

•Presents controversies in philosophical implications and purposes of formal symbolic good judgment.

•Surveys significant traits and provides unique insights.

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H. W. Joseph and R. D. McKirahan, Principles and Proofs (Princeton University Press, 1992) treats of Aristotelian demonstrative science, a topic of paramount importance for medieval logic. Valuable surveys of medieval logic can be found in the general histories by W. Kneale and M. Kneale, The Development of Logic (Oxford: Clarendon, 1962) and I. M. Bochenski, Formale Logik, English tr. by Ivo Thomas: A 32 HISTORY OF LOGIC: MEDIEVAL History of Formal Logic (Notre Dame University Press, 1963). Surveys of medieval logic have been offered by E.

Today, in elementary logic classes, when the analysis of natural language arguments is treated, students are taught to search for argument indicator words, such as ‘thus,’ ‘therefore,’ ‘hence,’ ‘whence,’ ‘because,’ etc. However, today we also make a clear distinction between implication, consequence, inference and causal grounding: • ‘implies’ is an indicator-word for implication, which is a propositional connection between proposition(al content)s. • ‘follows from,’ ‘is a consequence of ’ and ‘if .

In order to account for the failure of transitivity in the case of iterated predication, contemporary logical semantics relies only on a (meager) reference relation, both relata of which, namely, the expression and its reference, are construed as things. Medieval logic, to its credit and great advantage, draws upon a richer spectrum of semantic notions. In effect, the medievals split our modern notion of reference into two notions, namely signification and supposition. The language studied by medieval logicians is a highly stylized, technical Latin, with rigid syntactic rules and clear meaning and in this it resembles, not our current metalinguistic predicate-calculus, but rather those interpreted formal languages that were used by Frege and others to inaugurate modern logic.

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