By Ian D. Whyte
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Environmental History
Sheep and goats were 23 agricultural origins: South Asia | agroforestry domesticated soon after 9000BC. 8000–6000BC. Irrigation was being practised in the Indus Valley by 4500BC (Fuller 2006). agriculture: mechanization Agricultural improvement until the C19 involved little mechanization beyond better ploughs such as Small’s (1763), and Jethro Tull’s seed drill (1701). 1784 in SE Scotland and was quickly adapted to horse, water, wind and steam power. The brick chimneys of steam threshing machines still dominate large arable farms in SE Scotland and NE England.
There was a rapid shift of employment in Alpine communities from farming to tourism and in the process traditional social structures were altered. Some of the most striking areas of alpine landscape receive protection as national and regional parks. But only around 10% of the Alps are protected by such designations and the creation of national parks often leads to conﬂicts (Thompson 1999, Weiss 2001). 8 million km2 in Brazil, Peru and Colombia. Pollen evidence and sediment cores suggest that its climate was unstable in the Holocene, alternating between wetter and drier phases.
And in Britain 5300BP. Archaeologists now suggest that agriculture was adopted by indigenous hunter-gatherers rather than being brought by a massive wave of immigrants. In Ireland, which lacked large post-glacial mammals, the environmental impact of the arrival of domestic cattle was considerable. Throughout the early Neolithic, between 4000BC and 3000BC, the landscape remained predominately wooded and clearings were still small. 18 agricultural origins: the British Isles | agricultural origins: China Settlement sites remain elusive and many are likely to have been only seasonal.