By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This sensible instruction manual brings jointly a variety of bibliographic info on irregular pressures and provides the sensible adventure of the authors and diverse specialists inside Elf-Aquitaine. essentially destined for each day use by means of subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anywhere they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes some of the origins of strain anomalies, and information the equipment to be had for his or her prediction, detection and review. it's going to even be valuable to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference guide.
record of relevant Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain ideas
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain overview
five. precis and total Conclusions - support Chart
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Extra info for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
Between fine particles or in the interlamellar space). Regardless of this controversy, it will be noted that the release of water can probably contribute significantly to the creation of abnormal pressure, since it occurs at high temperatures, and therefore at considerable depths where the capacity for water expulsion under the influence of the overburden is reduced. 5 O h water. A high geothermal gradient or the confinement of an argillaceous body will both modify clay diagenesis. The abnormally high porosity (and water content) of undercompacted zones explains why their geothermal gradient is abnormally steep.
Cm-') (after BARKER, Aquathermal expansion only has an effect if the following conditions are satisfied : - the environment is completely isolated, 36 - pore volume is constant, - the rise in temperature takes place after the environment is isolated. In fact, for the thermal effect to be significant the system must be perfectly closed, since creation of overpressure is associated with a very small increase in the volume of water. This means that even the smallest leak will reduce or even cancel out the thermal effect.
May be superimposed on the overburden effect - geothermal gradient plays a major role - significant smectite proportion in the original deposit Thick argillaceous sequences Osmosis - rare second order cause - transient, unstable phenomenon - difficult to prove - special cases : localised, transient pheno- lnterlayering of clay with lenticular reservoirs of contrasting salinity of organic matter and hydrocarbons Miscellaneous : Sulfate diagenesis Carbonate compaction Permafrost - mena Evaporite deposits chalk talik/permafrost 61 3.