By John Warren

This can be a re-creation of Elizabeth I: faith and overseas Affairs. This name units the scene from 1541 charting the advancements of the Mid-Tudor quandary from Henry VIII to Mary I. It then is going directly to learn the succession of Elizabeth and her consolidation of energy, interpreting the political, spiritual, and army threats, either exterior and inner, to her rule. the issues in the course of her ultimate years also are explored, and this identify concludes by means of key subject matters and interpretations around the interval. through the booklet, key dates, phrases, and concerns are highlighted, and old interpretations of key debates are defined. precis diagrams are incorporated to consolidate wisdom and realizing of the period,

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The final spur to war came when the Pope broke his alliance with France and so saved Mary the embarrassment of fighting against the Vicar of Christ. In June 1557, war was declared on France. As often in such cases, war with a longstanding foreign enemy united opponents and supporters of the regime – even the sons of the Duke of Northumberland fought for Mary. Parliament raised an ample subsidy. At first, all went well. The Scots were contained, the English navy cleared French shipping out of the Channel and English forces participated in the capture of St Quentin (and were generously given the credit by Philip).

The Marian bishops in the Lords maintained an unwavering opposition to both bills. Their view was well explained in a speech to the House of Lords made by Bishop Scot of Chester in March 1559. Scot stated bluntly that Parliament had no right to meddle with matters of doctrine. It had been expected that Parliament would be dissolved before Easter 1559. However, Elizabeth did not dissolve Parliament. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, signed in April, had removed the French threat. With the spectre of invasion lifted, it may be that Elizabeth could afford to create some upset at home in pressing for a religious settlement more congenial to herself and her Protestant supporters.

Meeting the Challenge: The Legacy of a Mid-Tudor Crisis? | 25 The final point to be made on the crown finances is that, compared to fellow monarchs in France and the Empire, the English crown was far less in debt: after all, only Henry VII had really been able to balance the books – at considerable political cost. Government intervention in domestic commerce and industry Generally speaking, the Marian government did indeed intervene; itself a sign of energy and commitment. It can hardly be blamed for coming down on the side of protecting the traditional industries rather than leaping into the dark and trying to encourage emerging capitalism by removing, rather than reinforcing, restrictions.

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