By Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer
This monograph offers a global point of view on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, together with the matter of geogenic acidification. a lot has been discovered over the last decade via study and functional adventure on how you can mitigate or remediate the environmental difficulties of acidic pit lakes. within the first a part of the e-book, basic medical matters are awarded in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental technology, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and at the bizarre organic good points that happen within the severe habitats of acidic pit lakes. one other bankruptcy presents an outline of equipment at present used to remediate acidic pit lakes and deal with outflowing acidic water. the second one a part of the publication is a set of neighborhood surveys of pit lake difficulties from 3 ecu nations and Australia, and case reports of varied person consultant lakes. a last case learn presents an cutting edge method of assessing the commercial worth of recent pit lakes and balancing the prices and advantages, a helpful device for determination makers.
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Extra resources for Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines
2003) Here Here ð3:2Þ Salinity is calculated over several steps, involving a number of empirical constants. The exact numerical approach can be read in the original literature or—in a more comprehensible way—in the review by Boehrer and Schultze (2008). At the time of writing this manuscript, UNESCO is providing a calculator on the internet for assessing properties of ocean water using coefficients by Fofonoff (1985). 6 psu), Chen and Millero (1986) introduced a correction factor. S ¼ 1:00488ocean ð3:2aÞ In limnic waters, salinity has no clear definition.
1). For temperature compensation, the most common reference temperature is 25°C, though tables have also been developed for 20°C. g. Boehrer et al. 2009b). Oceanographers define salinity S as a function of temperature T and electrical conductivity C. Values are given in practical salinity units [psu], which give a good indication of dissolved salts in g/kg of ocean water and brackish water. 497 Boehrer et al. (2009a) Boehrer et al. (2009a) Karakas et al. (2003) Karakas et al. (2003) Karakas et al.
The observed turbulence pattern below the chemocline (Stevens et al. 2005) may be connected to the uniform wavelength (Boehrer and Stevens 2005). 40 3 Limnology of Pit Lakes altitude [m] Lake Niemegk XN3 70 temperature 20 60 15 50 10 40 5 30 0 70 electrical altitude [m] conductance 6 25 60 4 50 2 40 30 0 8 altitude [m] 70 pH - value 60 6 50 4 40 30 2 1999 2000 2001 Fig. 15 Contour plots of temperature (in °C), electrical conductivity at 25°C (in mS/cm), and pH at measuring site XN3 over the period of regular flooding of the Goitsche pit (modified after Boehrer et al.