By I Prigogine

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When this has been fixed, its concentration in the other phase is given by the equilibrium condition and cannot be freely chosen. Copyright © 2004 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC For the two-component, two-phase liquid system, the question arises as to how much of each of the pure liquid components dissolves in the other at equilibrium. Indeed, some pairs of liquids are so soluble in each other that they become completely miscible with each other when mixed at any proportions. Such pairs, for example, are water and 1-propanol or benzene and carbon tetrachloride.

In the Appendix of this book, lists are given of the most commonly used symbols, except for those in Chapter 9, which has its own list of symbols. 8 LITERATURE ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION Recommendations of solvent extraction terminology have been published by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) [1,3–5]. 1; unfortunately, the older ones may only be available in large science libraries. Most of them deal either with a small sector of the field or are very comprehensive. 2, we have collected edited versions of proceedings of the International Conferences of Solvent Extraction (ISEC), which normally are held every three years.

7. 4 THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLUTIONS Thermodynamics is the branch of science dealing with the energetics of substances and processes. It describes the tendency of processes to take place spontaneously, the effects of external conditions, and the effects of the composition of mixtures on such processes. Thermodynamics is generally capable of correlat- Copyright © 2004 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ing a variety of data pertaining to widely changing conditions by relatively simple formulae. One approach to such a correlation involves the definition of a hypothetical ideal system and the subsequent consideration of deviations of real systems from the ideal one.

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