By K. Abendroth (auth.), Dr. med. Thomas Heinz Ittel, Prof. Dr. med. Heinz-Günter Sieberth, Prof. Dr. med. Hans Henning Matthiaß (eds.)

Interdisziplin{re und aktuelle info zu den Themen- schwerpunkten "zellphysiologie und Endokriolopgie des Knochens", "Renale Osteopatie" und "Frakturheilung und Kallusbildung"

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FC is a regulator of cellular function by the activation of various calcium activated enzymes, such as calmodulin, the calpain protease family and various cytoskeleton associated proteins, amongst others. Another important process regulated by calcium is the stimulation of activity of the potassium channel, raising the membrane potential. IFC is tightly regulated, usually to a level of about 100 nM in the resting state, but it is rapidly increased upon stimulation with a variety of factors. FC concentration in osteoblasts is regulated by four mechanisms.

P, and TGF 0'. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the current model of this system. FC, at least partially if not wholly by PI-PLC as we have previously shown [1]. In the second, a ligand binds to a calcium channel receptor and activates it. Both of these processes appear to involve the activation of a GTP binding protein with GTPase activity. Calcium can also enter the cell by diffusion and calcium is pumped out of the cell using an energy requiring process due to the concentration gradient between inside (11M) and outside (mM) concentrations of calcium.

On the other hand, the osteoid seam thickness is reduced because of a marked shortening of the mineralization lag time. The osteoid appositional rate is markedly increased indicating an increased osteoblastic activity. Hypothyroidism In untreated hypothyroidism activation frequency is decreased. Both resorption and formation periods are markedly prolonged because of reduced activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts [11]. The final resorption depth is significantly reduced whereas the completed mean wall thickness is increased.

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